Autor Tema: drogas  (Leído 25313 veces)

warriorsperu

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drogas
« : abril 19, 2015, 09:06:41 am »


Consumo de drogas ha matado a 253 mil, dice ONU

-todanoticia.com- Las zonas del mundo que más muertes relacionadas con las drogas comunican son América del Norte y Oceanía, que afecta a uno de cada 20 fallecidos entre las personas de 15 a 64 años de edad.

Naciones Unidas cifra en hasta 253 mil las muertes anuales causadas por el consumo de drogas en el mundo, con los derivados del opio como los más letales, y advierte sobre un incremento del uso de narcóticos en América Latina, África y Asia.

"Se estima que de 99 mil a 253 mil muertes pueden atribuirse al uso de drogas ilícitas; la mayoría de esas muertes, que se podrían evitar, fueron casos fatales de sobredosis de personas dependientes de opiáceos" , señala un informe de la Oficina de las Naciones Unidas contra la Droga y el Delito (ONUDD).

Este documento ha sido entregado por la secretaria de la ONUDD a los países que participan esta semana en la Comisión de Estupefacientes de la ONU.

"En Asia, las muertes relacionadas con las drogas representaron aproximadamente uno de cada 100 fallecimientos, en Europa uno de cada 110, en África uno de cada 150 y en América del Sur aproximadamente una de cada 200 muertes", indica el informe.

Las zonas del mundo que más muertes relacionadas con las drogas comunican son América del Norte y Oceanía, que afecta a uno de cada 20 fallecidos entre las personas de 15 a 64 años de edad. Esta alta incidencia se debe no sólo a un mayor consumo de narcóticos sino también porque allí existe una mejor seguimiento y comunicación de las muertes causadas por las drogas, reconoce la ONUDD.

"Los opiáceos siguen causando el mayor daño a nivel mundial, a juzgar por la demanda de tratamiento, el consumo de drogas por inyección y las infecciones por el VIH, así como por las muertes relacionadas" con esa sustancia, agrega el documento.

La droga que más se consume en el mundo sigue siendo el cannabis, seguida por las anfetaminas y sus derivados.

A escala mundial, la estabilización o el descenso del consumo de narcóticos tradicionales, como la cocaína, la heroína o el cannabis, en EU y Europa, "se ve neutralizado, sin embargo, por el creciente uso de esas drogas en partes de África, América del Sur y Asia".

En América Central y América del Sur la prevalencia del consumo de cocaína sigue siendo baja, aunque parece aumentar en algunos países como Brasil, Costa Rica y Perú, precisa la ONUDD.

En 2010, eta oficina de la ONU calcula que "de 153 a 300 millones de personas, es decir, del 3,4 al 6,6 % de las personas de 15 a 64 años en todo el mundo" consumieron alguna droga al menos una vez en un año.

Los considerados "consumidores problemáticos de drogas", son muchos menos, entre 15,5 y 38,6 millones de personas, que usan de forma habitual cocaína o derivados del opio, o incluso ambas. Los consumidores de narcóticos inyectables, los más peligrosos, como heroína, otros opiáceos, metanfetamina y cocaína, ascienden a entre 11 y 22 millones de personas.

Y solo para la cocaína, se estima que en 2010 hubo entre 13 y 19,5 millones de consumidores, agrega la ONUDD, que alerta de que apenas un 20 % de los casos más problemáticos tienen acceso a tratamientos.
- See more at: http://www.todanoticia.com/46197/consumo-drogas-ha-matado-253/#sthash.6fvSd9Bi.dpuf





« Última Modificación: agosto 03, 2017, 10:02:54 pm por warriorsperu »

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Re:drogas
« Respuesta #1 : abril 19, 2015, 09:10:49 am »


Drogas, assunto de Família

DROGAS, ASSUNTO DE FAMÍLIA

Por Paulo Henrique Barbosa*

Vinte e seis de junho é o dia internacional de combate às drogas. Os vários e recentes estudos acerca do tema, que não sai da pauta da sociedade civil e de organizações governamentais do mundo inteiro, sugerem novos olhares sobre o problema e abordagens que projetam êxitos maiores que os obtidos até então, focalizando, principalmente, o público jovem.

Segundo dados do Relatório Brasileiro sobre Drogas, publicado em 2010 pela Secretaria Nacional de Políticas sobre Drogas, 74,6% dos brasileiros consumiram bebida alcoólica no ano de 2005. O percentual foi de 44% para o tabaco e 22,8% para outras drogas. Da população investigada, 12,3% se disseram dependentes de álcool, 10,1% de tabaco e 2% de outras drogas. A pesquisa ouviu pessoas de 12 a 65 anos nas mais de cem cidades brasileiras com população superiora 200 mil habitantes segundo o Censo 2000.

O mesmo estudo apresenta levantamento feito em 2004 entre estudantes de ensino fundamental e médio da rede pública nas 27 capitais brasileiras: no mês em que responderam ao questionário, 44,3% dos entrevistados haviam consumido álcool, 10%, tabaco, 10%, solventes, 3,2%, maconha, 1,3%, cocaína, e meio por cento, crack.

O livro Retratos da Juventude Brasileira, organizado por Helena Abramo e Pedro Branco (Editora Fundação Perseu Abramo), que analisou a pesquisa Perfil da Juventude Brasileira,feita pelo Instituto Cidadania, informa que 70% dos jovens de 13 a 24 anos que admitiram já ter consumido ou consumir habitualmente bebida alcoólica começaram antes dos 18 anos, número que se repete para o primeiro contato com o cigarro. Quanto à maconha, 80% dos que já usaram afirmam que a primeira vez se deu até os 18 anos.

A dimensão que o álcool e o tabaco representam nesse cenário deixa claro que uma discussão honesta sobre o tema tem, necessariamente, de quebrar o tabu que separa drogas lícitas de ilícitas, vencendo a hipócrita condescendência com que a moralidade de mercado trata as primeiras. Até porque há estudos científicos que mostram que a bebida e o cigarro, vendidos livremente pelas ruas, são mais agressivos para o organismo que algumas substâncias proibidas.

Isso é necessário tanto para concentrar mais fortemente as ações preventivas naquilo que, quantitativa e qualitativamente, tem sido o problema mais grave, quanto para repensar o usuário de tóxicos ilegais. Se o Ministério da Saúde adverte que fumar é prejudicial (e é, e muito!) e se sabe-se que a chance de morrer pelo cigarro (uma em três) é maior que a chance de morrer brincando de roleta russa (uma em seis), por que tolera-se a indústria tabagista e suas intermináveis formas de anular as campanhas antifumo? Se o consumo de álcool é fator de peso em problemas sociais de toda ordem (de mortes no trânsito a violência doméstica), como permite-se que a Ambev seja uma das principais financiadoras das emissoras privadas de TV, por meio da publicidade, inclusive, no horário nobre? Flagrante a incoerência.

Ao mesmo tempo, é preciso um olhar mais solidário para o consumidor de psicotrópicos ilegais, reorientando-se e ampliando-se as políticas públicas voltadas a ele e apoiando-se as iniciativas da sociedade civil voltadas à recuperação do viciado. A política de guerra às drogas marginaliza o usuário, não lhe oferece caminhos para superar a dependência e serve de tapete debaixo do qual tentam-se esconder a corrupção e violência policiais, sem que se obtenham êxitos significativos no enfrentamento ao narcotráfico. Segundo o Departamento Penitenciário Nacional, um em cada quatro presidiários no Brasil está detido por tráfico de drogas. E, entre 2005 e 2011, enquanto a população carcerária aumentou 1,7 vez, o número de presos por tráfico cresceu quase quatro vezes (de 23 mil para 125 mil).

Sucesso do combate ao tráfico, já que a nova lei de tóxicos, de 2006, aboliu a prisão para o usuário? De forma nenhuma. O que acontece é que o usuário – evidentemente o usuário pobre, da periferia, da favela – está sendo preso como traficante, em razão de uma lei que elencou um número exorbitante de ações como “tráfico” e sequer estabeleceu a quantidade de drogas considerada para consumo próprio. Ao mesmo tempo, as ações antidrogas espalham o terror policial nas comunidades pobres e são usadas para encobrir abuso de autoridade e violaçãode direitos humanos cometidos por agentes do Estado.

Por último, é bastante útil a informação de que o contato com drogas – lícitas e ilícitas – acontece, pela primeira vez, durante a adolescência. Isso mostra que a melhor ação de prevenção se dá no âmbito das relações familiares. É enquanto está em casa que o jovem se depara com essa questão. E é nesse ambiente que uma discussão honesta e orientações sensatas sobre o assunto vão se mostrar mais eficazes que a ação policial-judiciária e mais felizes que as políticas de saúde pública. Drogas também são assunto de família!

“Todos os estudos já realizados mostram que, se houver um bom diálogo entre pais e filhos acerca do uso de drogas e de bebidas alcoólicas, os filhos estarão muito menos suscetíveis a experimentar essas substâncias”, afirmam Jim Burns e Stephen Arteburn, autores de Como Falar de Drogas em Casa, livro que a Editora Universidade da Família apresenta como a boa novidade deste dia 26 de junho.


























« Última Modificación: abril 19, 2015, 09:11:52 am por warriorsperu »

warriorsperu

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Re:drogas
« Respuesta #2 : abril 19, 2015, 09:19:32 am »
La drogadicción es una enfermedad que tienen su origen en el cerebro de un gran número de seres humanos. La enfermedad se caracteriza por su cronicidad o larga duración, su progresión y las recaídas.
Se debe entender que el adicto seguirá siendo un mientras viva, es decir, que el individuo se rehabilita para poder vivir sin consumir la droga y, de allí en adelante, éste será un adicto en remisión, no estará usando la droga, pero para mantenerse en ese estado de abstinencia o remisión no podrá bajar la guardia.





http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-5cuVprYbCA4/TwNN-bt772I/AAAAAAAAAC0/hd_-JLDSZH0/s1600/drogas.jpg









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Re:drogas
« Respuesta #3 : abril 19, 2015, 09:28:46 am »




Afghanistan: Record Heroin Harvest

Finding a solution to the thriving heroin production in Afghanistan has been on the back burner ever since the Americans occupied the country. The new Afghan president who will be elected next weekend will have to battle record opium harvests.

Since the US came down on the Taliban and occupied Afghanistan in 2001, heroin production in the country has surged almost 40-fold. One year ago the estimated number of heroin addicts dying due to Afghan heroin in the preceding decade surpassed well over one million deaths worldwide.

Last year, Afghanistan harvested a record quantity of opium. The annual report of the International Narcotics Control Board maintains that Afghan poppy fields now occupy a record 209,000 hectares, a 36 percent increase from 2013.

Today more than half of the provinces in Afghanistan are growing opium poppies. Reports say Afghanistan is responsible for production of around 80 percent of the world’s opium and heroin.

Heroin takes toll on Afghan society

Yet the country’s probably most disastrous problem is that the Afghan people not only produce record amounts of opiates, they are actively consuming them, with a heroin vortex sucking in more Afghanis every year.
Afghan drug addicts smoke heroin on a street in Jalalabad on February 7, 2014.

Afghan drug addicts smoke heroin on a street in Jalalabad on February 7, 2014.

According to the UN, 1 in 30 Afghani is a drug addict – that’s over a million people in a 30-million population. This makes Afghanistan not just the main producer, but at the same time one of the world’s leading drug consumers.

The new Afghan president will have to find ways to save his people from domestically produced drugs, which also form the backbone of the national economy.

Despite declaring war on drugs in Afghanistan, all efforts to disrupt the production of heroin have not helped to solve the problem in the slightest, with more drugs flowing out of the country every year. Earnings from the trade are clearly considered worth the risks. And Afghan heroin is spreading in all directions, and in particular – Russia.

Because the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) headed by the US remains the dominant power in Afghanistan for the second decade now, Russia has been repeatedly asking Washington to curb heroin production in the Afghan mountains, albeit with poor results.

Russia’s President Vladimir Putin blamed the ISF for doing almost nothing to eradicate drug production in the occupied country. At the same time the US maintains that since 2002 it has spent $7 billion on fighting drug production in Afghanistan, and allocated $3 billion on agricultural programs trying to encourage Afghan nationals to grow other crops in place of the opium poppy.

In 2014 things deteriorated with the escalation of the political crisis in Ukraine and the Russia-US row over Crimea separating from Ukraine to reunite with Russia.
An Afghan government official (L) and two Afghan National Army soldiers (C and R) cut down opium poppies in Bihsood district, some 25 kms north of Jalalabad , 08 April 2004.

An Afghan government official (L) and two Afghan National Army soldiers (C and R) cut down opium poppies in Bihsood district, some 25 kms north of Jalalabad , 08 April 2004.

The US introduced sanctions against Russia and a number of its officials, thus breaking many contacts established over the years.

The new blacklist included the head of the Russian Federal Drug Control Service, Viktor Ivanov, who also co-chairs the Russia-US Presidential Commission workgroup on countering the illegal drug trade. Russia’s anti-drug tsar accused Washington of attempting to hide its responsibility for the drug crisis in Afghanistan.

NATO has also announced that it is suspending all military and civilian cooperation with Russia over the Ukrainian crisis.

On Wednesday news came that NATO is giving up its joint program with Russia, which is currently teaching Afghan helicopter pilots. Washington also intends not to buy original spare parts for Russian-made helicopters used by the Afghan army.

Although NATO Secretary General Anders Fogh Rasmussen announced that the alliance will continue cooperating with Russia in countering drugs in Afghanistan, the real future for such cooperation looks grim, particularly after the US President’s deputy drug czar, Michael Botticelli, refused an invitation by his Russian colleague to come to Moscow, citing Russia’s actions in Crimea as the major reason.

The lack of international dialogue could allow this business to grow even further, Dr. Bidit Dey, an expert on Afghanistan from the University of Northumbria told RT.

“The West, and of course the US in particular, have to set aside all geopolitical interests when it comes to global security,” Bidit Dey said, stressing that “There is a lack of cooperation between Russia and the West and that would be a huge threat to Europe’s security and also to overall social stability.”

While Washington is trying to avoid shouldering the responsibility for allowing heroin production in Afghanistan to burgeon, there is growing agreement that this deadly business simply can’t go on forever.

With the presidential election set in Afghanistan for April 5 and the American troops expected to leave the country by the end of 2014, does the world stand a chance for a real change?











There’s almost no help for Afghanistan’s 1.6 million drug addicts

Under the Pol-e Sokhta Bridge in central Kabul, hundreds of men sit along an open sewer, trying to keep out the cold with worn-out coats and scarfs wrapped around their faces. The air is rancid with the smell human excrement, vomit and a tinge of harsh smoke from glass pipes burning opium.
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Qassem, just 23 years old, has been addicted to heroin and opium for four years. He says he spent two years working in Iran, where he became addicted to the drugs his employer gave him so he could work longer hours. Then he was deported and had no money to go back to his home.

“Now I live under this bridge,” he says. “If I have to spend the winter here, I will die.”

Many others under the bridge share Qassem’s story: Work in Iran, followed by addiction and deportation. Now, they have no jobs, no houses and, often no family. “The dogs won’t even stay here, but we have to,” Qassem says.

If it wasn’t already clear that the war on drugs in Afghanistan has been lost, a new report from the United Nations’ Office on Drugs and Crime spells it out in detail. The cultivation of opium poppies in Afghanistan has never been higher. And in recent years, a growing volume of that opium — and the heroin produced from it — is being consumed inside Afghanistan’s borders.

Afghandrugs1

Kabul's homeless congregate underneath the Pol-e Sokhta Bridge.
Credit:

Courtesy of Sune Engel Rasmussen

Estimates say that about 1.6 million Afghans are drug addicts; the Afghan government has space for only about 2,300 of them in its drug treatment facilities around the country. There are almost 100 of them, are mostly funded by international aid.

Jangalak, the only functioning government-run clinic in Kabul, has space for 300 addicts.

“Since we established this hospital three years ago, we have treated more than 6,000 drug addicts,” says Dr. Ahmadzai Soltani, who heads the clinic.

“After six weeks here, we send them back in society as healthy, good people.”

Naeem, who’s been at the clinic for a week and a half, says he feels “clean” but plans to stay for the full 45 days.

“I have a friend who went through the treatment before, and he relapsed immediately after being discharged," says the 21-year-old. "I am worried that will happen to me too."

One person who has stayed clean is Qoli Ajmal, who arrived at the clinic three years ago, stayed on and got a job. “I fix electronic things and do some carpentry, and I’m a member of a support group where I teach new patients what I learned here,” he says.

He says he has no problem staying clean because his work is rewarding “Once, I visited a mosque in the city where I met three people who had been discharged from the clinic a while back," he says. "They told me that they had followed the instructions I gave them, and that helped them stay clean. That made me feel really good.”

But relapses are a major problem: the Ministry of Public Health says there's a 40 percent relapse rate for addicts treated at Jangalak. Although the government tries to follow up with recovering addicts after treatment, resources are scarce.

And most of Afghanistan’s addicts aren’t getting help at all. The Afghan government has said it plans to establish more treatment centers, but at the moment, it’s facing severe revenue shortages and can hardly even pay salaries to public officials. Despite the enormous need, drug treatment in Afghanistan just isn’t a top priority.






warriorsperu

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Re:drogas
« Respuesta #4 : abril 19, 2015, 09:35:16 am »






Russian anti-drug chief urges new plan to counter Afghanistan drug threat

The head of Russia’s anti-drug service says the international community must concentrate on fighting “planet-scale” centers producing illegal drugs, such as Afghanistan.

Fighting the "planet scale" drug centers should be promoted at the UN Security Council and it should become an absolutely independent top priority issue, Viktor Ivanov said at a Moscow meeting of experts Tuesday. The Russian anti-drug head also urged foreign colleagues “to jointly develop a common plan on liquidating such centers by the reorganization of national and social development” which is codenamed Rainbow-3.

In addition Ivanov called upon all countries interested in countering the drug threat to create a global alliance for alternative development of Afghanistan through forced industrialization.

The code name Rainbow-3 has been chosen because Russia has previously put forward the Rainbow-2 plan that consisted of listing Afghanistan drug crops as a threat to the international peace and security with the UN SC, development and implementation of a major aid and reform program for Afghanistan’s economy, and creating at least 2 million jobs for former opium farmers and drug traffickers.

Other measures included an international sanctions list targeting landlords who profit from drug production, and also making the destruction of opium and marijuana fields an official objective for the International Security Assistance Force.

Last week the Russian Federal Drug Control Service suggested that the United States was deliberately destroying the international anti-drug cooperation in order to hide its responsibility for the drug crisis in Afghanistan.

The statement was made soon after the United States announced it was extending the list of people subject to sanctions in connection with the Ukrainian crisis and the accession of the Republic of Crimea into the Russian Federation. The new blacklist included Viktor Ivanov, who is also co-chairing the workgroup of the Russia-US Presidential Commission on countering the illegal drug trade.

The Russian agency described the move as an “arbitrary and thoughtless action” destroying the unique experience in international police cooperation and noted that the only possible explanation could be the “fear of responsibility for the 40-fold explosive increase of illegal drug production in Afghanistan since this country’s occupation by the US and NATO forces in 2001.”

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Re:drogas
« Respuesta #5 : abril 19, 2015, 09:52:13 am »
Drogas, Tipos, Consecuencias, y mas...

¿Que es la droga?
Con el nombre de droga se designa en sentido genérico a toda sustancia mineral, vegetal o animal que se utiliza en la industria o en la medicina y que posee efectos estimulantes, depresores o narcóticos o, como establece la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS), a cualquier sustancia que, introducida en un organismo vivo, puede modificar una o varias de sus funciones. A efectos penales, el concepto de droga (a pesar de las diferentes formas de actuación en el organismo) engloba también las sustancias estupefacientes y psicotrópicas, naturales o sintéticas, cuyo consumo reiterado provoca la dependencia física u orgánica, así como el deseo irrefrenable de seguir consumiéndolas en mayores dosis a fin de evitar el síndrome de abstinencia.
drogas
Tipos de Drogas:
Hay diferentes tipos de drogas y aunque sus efectos pueden variar, el daño integral siempre es el mismo.
Existen varios tipos de drogas y es necesario destacar entre el uso de sustancias químicas con fines médicos y el abuso en su consumo, con fines adictivos.
Nombre de Droga:Alcohol
Tipo de Droga: Depresivo
Datos para los Padres: Veinticinco por ciento de los estudiantes en octavo grado admiten haberse intoxicado por lo menos una vez.
Otros Nombres: Cerveza, vino, licor, booze
Forma de Consumo: Oral
Efectos: Adicción (alcoholismo), mareos, nausea, vómitos, resacas, dificultad de expresión, sueño interrumpido, problemas motores, conducta agresiva, problemas al embarazo, depresión respiratoria y muerte (en dosis altas).
Nombre de Droga:Anfetaminas
Tipo de Droga: Estimulante
Datos para los Padres: El uso crónico puede causar psicosis con síntomas de esquizofrenia.
Otros Nombres: Speed, uppers, ups, hearts, black beauties, pep pills, capilots, bumble bees, Benzedrine, dexadrine, footballs, biphetamine
Forma de Consumo: Oral, inyectado, jalado o fumado.
Efectos: Adicción, irritabilidad, ansiedad, presión alta, paranoia, psicosis, depresión, agresión, convulsiones, pupilas dilatadas, mareos, falta de sueño, falta de apetito, malnutrición, altos riesgos al VIH, hepatitis y otras enfermedades contagiosas si es inyectado.
Nombre de Droga:Meta-anfetaminas
Datos para los Padres: Algunos usuarios no duermen por 3 a 15 días.
Otros Nombres: Speed, meth, crank, crystal, ice, fire, croak, crypto, white cross, glass. "Ice" es el nombre que se le conoce en las calles para el tipo que se fuma.
Efectos: Adicción, irritabilidad, agresión, hipertermia, derrames cerebrales, paranoia, psicosis, convulsiones, toxicidad en el corazón y los vasos sanguíneos, alucinaciones, arritmia, formicación (la sensación de que insectos andan por debajo de la piel).
Nombre de Droga:Ecstasy
Datos para los Padres: Es la droga más popular en fiestas nocturnas (llamadas raves) y es la más común de las conocidas como "designer drugs".
Otros Nombres: XTC, Adam, MDMA
Efectos: Disturbios psiquiátricos como el pánico, la ansiedad, la depresión y la paranoia. Tensión muscular, nausea, visión borrosa, transpiración, palpitaciones elevadas, estremecimientos, alucinaciones, desmayos, escalofríos, problemas para dormir y falta de apetito.
Nombre de Droga:Ritalin
Datos para los Padres: Algunos niños la compran o se la roban a sus compañeros en la escuela.
Otros Nombres: Speed, west coast
Forma de Consumo: La pastilla es reducida a polvo y es jalada o inyectada.
Efectos: Falta de apetito, calenturas, convulsiones y dolores de cabeza severos. Alto riesgo al VIH, hepatitis y otras infecciones. Paranoia, alucinaciones, repetición de movimientos y tareas sin sentido excesivos, estremecimientos, tics musculares.
Nombre de Droga:Herbal Ecstasy/Efredina
Datos para los Padres: Ingredientes principales son la cafeína y la efredina.
Efectos: Palpitaciones elevadas y presión alta. Ataques epilépticos, infartos, derrames cerebrales y muerte.
Nombre de Droga:Designer Drugs
Tipo de Droga: Estimulantes
Datos para los Padres: El cambio estructural de las moléculas de una droga para crear una sustancia nueva resulta en lo que se conoce como "Designer Drugs"
Otros Nombres: Synthetic heroin, goodfella
Forma de Consumo: Inyectado, jalado o fumado.
Efectos: Parálisis respiratoria instantánea. Alta posibilidad de sobredosis por su potencia. Muchos de los mismos efectos de la heroína.
Nombre de Droga:Cocaína
Datos para los Padres: Una droga muy adictiva. Uso frecuente puede producir la paranoia, alucinaciones, agresión, insomnio y depresión.
Otros Nombres: Coke, snow, nose candy, flake, blow, big C, lady, white, snowbirds.
Forma de Consumo: Jalado o disuelto en agua e inyectado.
Efectos: Adicción, dilatación de las pupilas, presión y latidos del corazón elevados. Respiración elevada, ataques epilépticos, infartos, insomnio, ansiedad, inquietud, irritabilidad, temperatura elevada, muerte de una sobredosis
Nombre de Droga:Crack
Datos para los Padres: Una forma barata de la cocaína que puede ser aún más adictiva.
Otros Nombres: Fumado.
Efectos: Igual que la cocaína.
Nombre de Droga:Heroína
Tipo de Droga: Opiáceos
Datos para los Padres: Los que usan la heroína rápidamente desarrollan una tolerancia a la droga en forma que necesitan más y más para sentir los efectos o para sentirse bien.
Otros Nombres: Smack, horse, mud, brown, sugar, junk, black tar, big H, dope.
Efectos: Adicción. Vocalización poco clara, paso lento, pupilas contraidas, párpados perezosos, problemas con la visión nocturna, adormecimiento, depresión respiratoria o falta de respiración, resequedad de la piel, infecciones epidérmicas. Alto riesgo a VIH, hepatitis y otras enfermedades contagiosas, si se inyecta.
Nombre de Droga:Tabaco
Datos para los Padres: De cada 5 estudiantes en el doceavo grado, uno fuma a diario.
Efectos: Adicción, problemas con el corazón, la laringe, el esófago, la vejiga, el páncreas, el riñón y la boca, cáncer pulmonar,enfisema y bronquitis crónica, aborto espontáneo, niños nacen pesando poco.




« Última Modificación: abril 19, 2015, 10:06:58 am por warriorsperu »

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Re:drogas
« Respuesta #6 : abril 19, 2015, 10:14:23 am »
 Drug addicts in Afghanistan










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Re:drogas
« Respuesta #7 : abril 19, 2015, 10:23:02 am »


Awash in opium, Afghan ‘wild west’ slips from Kabul’s grasp

Afghan drug addicts smoke heroin inside a cave in Farah province February 4, 2015. REUTERS/Omar Sobhani

(Reuters) – In fields less than a 10-minute drive from the intelligence headquarters of Afghanistan’s remote western province of Farah, farmers are planting their first illegal opium crop of the year.

Taliban insurgents control half of the region bordering Iran, government officials estimate. In one district, Khaki Safed, the sacked local government chief refuses to step down.

Worried villagers there say a former Taliban commander is leading an armed band several dozen strong who have pledged allegiance to Islamic State.

Farah offers a prime example of Afghanistan’s nexus between Islamist militancy, crime, opium and Kabul’s feeble grip on power. Residents say problems escalated after foreign troops withdrew in early 2013 and locals in Farah’s most lawless areas say the breakdown in order is complete…
Posted in Afghanistan, Anarchy/chaos, Drugs, Islamic State, Taliban on February 18, 2015 by Frau Katze. 10 Comments   



Thousands of young Russians falling to drug trade

Russia’s prospering drug trade could claim up to 30,000 young Russian lives this year alone. The country is the world’s third largest drug consumer after Afghanistan and Iran.

Oleg Safonov, deputy director of the Federal Drug Control Service, said on Thursday that the 18 to 35 year age group is most at risk, adding that cocaine deliveries, in particular, have increased massively in recent years.

“Compared to 2008, cocaine deliveries has risen sixfold. Before, the drug was coming to Russia from Western Europe via St. Petersburg, Poland, Ukraine and Belarus. Now it follows the route Africa-South Europe-Black Sea,” Safonov said.

Synthetic drugs are also on the rise in Russia and are being distributed mostly in places popular among the young, he added.

However the Afghan heroin still makes up the majority of the drugs coming to Russia. The country’s government has repeatedly called on its allies to step up effort in battling drug trafficking from Afghanistan.





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« Respuesta #8 : abril 19, 2015, 10:26:29 am »




Afghanistan is the main origin of drug trafficking

It is perfectly clear that drugs now pose a serious threat to the world, and Afghanistan is the main origin of this threat.

Afghanistan is the global production center for opium poppy and opiates like heroin and hashish. There has been a significant rise in drug production since the U.S.-led coalition toppled the Taliban in 2001. Illicit drug trafficking in Afghanistan has more than doubled since that time. Although drug production has declined after peaking in 2007, it remains high. Drug traffickers have been relying on the same channels during this entire time.

In order to stabilize the political situation in Afghanistan, the problem of drug trafficking in Afghanistan must be addressed, as most revenues from the drug trade go to the criminal organizations that undermine stability. They can only be defeated by well-organized, long-term and targeted efforts.

Drugs are a serious problem for many countries, particularly Afghanistan and neighboring Pakistan, where the number of drug addicts has grown to three million. In the last few years, their numbers have also grown in Central Asia, which has become a transit region for drugs destined for Russia. Afghan drugs are smuggled into Europe via Iran and Turkey.

Any strategy to counter the drug threat must involve two elements. The first is to destroy all poppy fields in the country and ensure that they will continue to be destroyed in the future. The second is to seize all drug shipments originating in Afghanistan.

Unfortunately, there are caveats in both cases.

The destruction of crops would require an agricultural transformation in Afghanistan, where roughly three quarters of the population are farmers. Their livelihood largely depends on growing opium poppies. Therefore, eradicating poppy fields would deprive the larger part of the Afghans of a substantial portion of their income.

There are political restrictions as well. The mission of the U.S.-led NATO coalition forces in Afghanistan does not include destroying poppy fields. The fear is that destroying fields would anger the population and turn the south and south-east of Afghanistan into a citadel of resistance. The Americans show no interest in destroying poppy fields, and so the problem remains unresolved.

Of course, it would be preferable, especially for Russia, if measures were taken to help Afghan farmers transition away from opium toward food crops. This would at least give them an incentive to stop growing opium poppies. But efforts in this direction have been very slow and ineffective.

The second front in this struggle – stopping Afghan drug exports – requires international cooperation. The United Nations is working hard to reduce drug exports and to improve interdiction efforts outside Afghanistan. But this is not always enough. It is also necessary to improve border surveillance between Afghanistan and Central Asia (Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan and Turkmenistan). From this point, drugs are then shipped to the Kazakh-Russian border. Border guards and all special services involved in the drug fight should step up their efforts on the border.

For Russia, Afghan drug trafficking is a grave problem, as Viktor Ivanov, head of the Committee on Illegal Drug Trafficking, has said recently. Russia needs and expects help from the West in the fight against this threat. At the recent Moscow international forum on combating the Afghan drug threat, President Dmitry Medvedev suggested developing joint measures toward this end.

Again, these plans should incorporate the UN’s experience, particularly that of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), in which Russia plays a key role. The experience of such agencies will help improve the struggle against drug trafficking in each particular case. Currently the majority of countries seize only 15% of drugs at their borders. The groups with a stake in drug trafficking are simply stronger than the forces fighting against them. This is why efforts to counter the drug threat must be consolidated. The UNODC should formulate a common position that all countries (Russia, the United States and the European Union) can sign on to. It should work to coordinate and improve efforts to effectively combat drug trafficking.

 

Vyacheslav Belokrenitsky is the Deputy Director of the Institute of Oriental Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS).

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Re:drogas
« Respuesta #9 : abril 19, 2015, 10:27:29 am »


Biggest drug bust in Afghanistan by US troops

US and Afghan troops recently destroyed a stronghold of the drug trade in southern Afghanistan. The offensive launched in the city of Marjah was a vast military operation to gain control of a stronghold of Taliban insurgents that is also used as a hub for storage and processing of drugs. “The four-day operation has seriously disrupted one of the key narcotics operations in southern Afghanistan,” reads the communiqué issued by the US commander in the country.

The official report adds that the narcotics hub is still under surveillance by an unmanned aircraft to detect any movement of rebel insurgents. According to the official communication, the troops discovered in the drug hub about 44,000 pounds of chemicals used to process heroin.

While 60 militants died during the offensive, local authorities claim that 37 innocent civilians were killed and 25 others were wounded during the attack. Another regional deputy claimed that 1,500 families had to flee the area. Civilian deaths are diminishing the credibility of the international troops in the country.

The Taliban are said to be raking in about $470 million a year from the heroin trade in Afghanistan that is estimated to be about 7 to 8 thousand tons of opium a year. The insurgent militant group gets the massive amount from direct drug trafficking and exacting 10% tax from Afghan poppy farmers. Given this scale, what is touted as the recent and supposedly biggest drug bust in Afghanistan by US forces handicapped merely a small amount in Taliban drug profits, and destroyed just over one percent of yearly drug haul.
« Última Modificación: abril 19, 2015, 10:29:24 am por warriorsperu »

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Re:drogas
« Respuesta #10 : abril 19, 2015, 10:29:03 am »


 One million Afghans suffer from drug addiction

Kabul: Nearly one million Afghans have been suffering from drug addiction, according to a report issued here on Saturday.
Afghanistan remains the main producer of opium as about 90 percent of the world's opium, the raw material used in manufacturing heroin

Afghanistan remains the main producer of opium as about 90 percent of the world’s opium, the raw material used in manufacturing heroin

“Afghanistan has close to one million adult drug users with a particularly high annual opiate prevalence among the adult population of 2.7 percent, similar to countries like Russia and Iran,” Xinhua cited a report of Afghan Counter-Narcotics Ministry issued with technical support of the United Nations Office for Drugs and Crime as stating.

“Between 2005 and 2009, the number of regular opium and heroin users increased by 53 percent and 140 percent respectively,” the report said.

The Afghanistan Drug Report 2012 also said the drug users were financially burdened by their addictions with total spending on drug use averaging $300 million annually in the country.

The report highlighted key achievements in the development of institutional and policy frameworks in response to illicit drugs in the war-torn country.

At the same time, the report showed that “the cultivation, trafficking and use of illicit drugs remain critical challenges for Afghanistan, resulting in significant negative social, economic and political impacts”.

“Also, the number of drug treatment centres increased by 58 percent between 2009 and 2012 but overall capacity remains low, covering only 5.9 percent of the opium and heroin users in the country,” it said.

Afghanistan remains the main producer of opium as about 90 percent of the world’s opium, the raw material used in manufacturing heroin, is produced in this country.

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Re:drogas
« Respuesta #11 : abril 19, 2015, 10:43:35 am »







Drug Addiction in Afghanistan: A Problem with No End in Sight

More and more people are becoming addicted to drugs in Afghanistan, a problem that affects men, women and children.

Despite producing more than 90 percent of the world's opium, the country has few health facilities set up to help addicted Afghans overcome their addictions.

While drug problems have ravaged Afghanistan for decades, there has been a rise in the production of opium over the last 10 years - the main ingredient in heroin -  from 185 tons in 2001 to 5,800 tons by 2011.

Hundreds of thousands of Afghans have turned to drugs to escape the twin miseries of poverty and war. The practice is pervasive, affecting men, women and children.

With many living in precarious conditions and with little money to survive, the cultivation of opium poppies is a profitable undertaking that provides a steady income.

This, in turn, encourages corruption and helps finance insurgents, especially in the south of the country where the Taliban controls many poppy fields as well as smuggling routes. Nearly 80 percent of the opium grown in Afghanistan is produced in the south.

"During the internal conflicts in Afghanistan, we had economic problems and we were induced into using opium by our neighbours, in order to help reduce the suffering and pain of war, that's why we're addicted to opium," drug addict Shaperai Jan told Reuters.

In addition to there being few drug rehabilitation facilities in Afghanistan, the treatment available to addicts is basic and it is even more difficult for women to access medical care in this ultra-conservative Muslim country.

The United Nations-funded Nejat drug rehabilitation centre in Kabul estimates that there are around 60,000 Afghan women who regularly take illegal drugs.

In some cases, Afghan refugees return with addictions from places like Iran, which has the second highest heroin abuse rate in the world, according to the UN.

"My husband was addicted to drugs in Iran. When he returned to Afghanistan, he was smoking inside the room in front of us and my children and I became addicted. We had to use drugs, otherwise we would feel pain in our bodies and only the use of drugs could reduce the pain," a woman explained to Reuters.

With many addicts sharing needles, medics are concerned about the spread of HIV and Aids, but preventive measures and HIV testing are frequently opposed by conservative forces in the country.

In a report published in February, the Institute for War and Peace Reporting highlighted the use of children as drug mules who are sent to Iran.

Some of the children are told to swallow capsules filled with heroin, which can burst and cause death.

Smugglers often tell them that the more capsules they swallow, the more money they will get.

In most cases, however, the children receive little cash in return for their efforts and can be abused by the smugglers.

Families can also be coerced into giving their children away to repay debts to local drug lords.










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Re:drogas
« Respuesta #12 : abril 19, 2015, 10:46:14 am »
Recent scenes from Afghanistan
Since he took office in January, President Barack Obama has ordered an additional 21,000 U.S. troops to be deployed to Afghanistan, which will bring the full U.S. deployment there to a total of 60,000 troops, joining 39,000 coalition troops from 43 countries. The U.S. administration plans to impose benchmarks for progress on both Afghanistan and neighboring Pakistan, who struggle with problems tied to tribal rivalries, illegal drug production and distribution, religious factions, general instability and poverty. Collected here are photographs from the past few months of the situation in Afghanistan and the lives that continue to be affected by it.






















































































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Re:drogas
« Respuesta #13 : abril 19, 2015, 10:53:18 am »





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« Respuesta #14 : abril 19, 2015, 10:55:48 am »
 Over 47,500 Drug War Deaths, Mexico Says
By The Red Phoenix on January 13, 2012   • ( 0 )
(AP) MEXICO CITY — Two decapitated bodies were found inside a burning SUV early Wednesday at the entrance to one of Mexico’s most luxurious malls, feeding fears drug violence is infiltrating privileged realms previously thought safe.
Police recovered the mutilated bodies before dawn off a toll highway at a shopping mall entrance in the heart of the Santa Fe district that’s a haven for international corporations, diplomats and the wealthy. The heads and a threatening message were dumped a few yards (meters) away, Mexico City prosecutors said in a statement.
Hours later, the government released a drug war body count recording more than 47,500 victims in five years, echoing independent death tolls tabulated by Mexican media.
Local media published images of the charred car and reported that a note written on hot pink paper was signed by the drug gang Mano con Ojos, or Hand with Eyes. Mexican police had said the gang was weakened by the arrest of its leader, Oscar Osvaldo Garcia, in August.
The victims, a man and a woman in their 30s, had not been identified, prosecutors said. They said the SUV with license plates from neighboring Mexico state had been stolen.
The Centro Santa Fe mall where the charred car was found is one of the country’s largest and most glamorous, housing high-end retailers like Coach, Prada, Hugo Boss, Saks Fifth Avenue and Mexican department store Palacio de Hierro. The dump scene was cleaned up so quickly that shoppers weren’t even aware anything had happened. The car was left only hours before Mexico City Mayor Marcelo Ebrard guided a tour of a bridge construction site 300 yards (meters) away. Ebrard spokesman Diego Gutierrez said there was nothing to indicate the bodies were a message to the mayor.
Mexico’s sprawling capital has been something of a haven from the brutal cartel violence that has claimed thousands of lives along the U.S. border and in outlying states. But gangs have been fighting over an increasingly lucrative local drug market for more than a year, mainly in the capital’s working class outer neighborhoods and suburbs.
The Santa Fe district has been spared much of that violence and managed to maintain its reputation as a manicured bubble built atop a former landfill on the western edge of Mexico City.
The financial district houses the Mexican headquarters of major corporations, Hewlett Packard and IBM among them, and Iberoamerican University, one of Mexico’s top private schools. Modern, heavily guarded high-rises where wealthy Mexicans and foreigners live dot the hilly landscape.
But as the fight among splintering drug cartels intensifies, brazen attackers have reached even into the country’s most guarded districts.
“If they don’t put an end to this, it could become more frightening here,” said Christian Falbi, a 24-year-old college student who lives in an apartment building within walking distance of the mall.
Erubiel Tirado, a security expert who teaches at Iberoamerican University, said the attack shows the government’s law enforcement strategy has not dissuaded increasingly brutal drug traffickers.
“We are talking about an area that is under 24-hour surveillance by police and private security and supposedly one of the safest in the capital and in the country, and yet they can act with impunity,” Tirado said.It was a regular day at the mall with dozens of cars parked in the lots and hundreds of shoppers visiting the jewelry shops, shoe and department stores.
Roberto Herrera, a 52-year-old salesman for a bottling company headquartered in a building across the street from the mall, wasn’t surprised by the news.
“We have lived with this situation for a while and we are no longer shocked because this is what’s been happening in Veracruz, Acapulco and Monterrey,” said Herrera, who was having lunch with a co-worker at the T.G.I. Friday’s restaurant inside the mall.
In October, the Mano con Ojos gang claimed responsibility for leaving two severed heads on a street across from the nation’s top military base in Mexico City.
The gang was once part of the Beltran Leyva drug cartel, and authorities say it has killed dozens while trying to forcefully recruit local drug dealers to its ranks.
Nationwide, 47,515 drug-related killings occurred from December 2006, when President Felipe Calderon deployed thousands of troops to drug hot spots, through September 2011, the Attorney General’s Office said Wednesday.
Drug-related killings rose 11 percent in the first nine months of 2011, when 12,903 people were killed, compared to 11,583 in the same period of 2010, the office said.
The figures indicate that three-quarters of all homicides in Mexico are now linked to the drug war.
The Attorney General’s Office found one small consolation: “It’s the first year (since 2006) that the homicide rate increase has been lower compared to the previous years.”
There was a 70 percent jumped in drug-related killings for the same nine-month period of 2010 compared to January-September 2009, when 6,815 deaths were recorded.
Prosecutors said the vast majority of last year’s killings occurred in eight of Mexico’s 32 states.
The Mexican government had been periodically releasing the number of drug war dead, but it stopped a year ago when the number reached nearly 35,000. Mexico’s freedom of information agency had said it would ask for an investigation if prosecutors didn’t release the data requested by several journalists by Wednesday.
Also Wednesday, Public Safety Secretary Genaro Garcia Luna said during a conference in Washington D.C. that in the first five years of the offensive against drug cartels, Mexico’s federal police had arrested 2,700 gang suspects and 205 gang leaders, had investigated 283,000 extortion complaints and seized 10,000 tons of marijuana, 111 tons of cocaine and seized 136,000 weapons, 11,000 grenades and 13 million rounds of ammunition.
Garcia Luna said Mexico has seized $935 million dollars presumed related to illegal activities.







« Última Modificación: abril 19, 2015, 10:56:22 am por warriorsperu »

 

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